Building npm Packages with TypeScript

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Recently I worked on a couple of npm packages which I built using TypeScript. In the process of figuring things out I encountered some challenges with publishing my code built with TypeScript to npm. In this article I’m going to show you how to setup your project to make publishing your TypeScript powered package to npm a pleasant experience.

Module exporting

A vital part of working with Node.js is the approach of exporting and importing JavaScript modules. If you’re writing plain old JavaScript powered Node.js code, you’re most likely using require for importing modules const path = require('path'); and exports = () => 'Hello World'; to export certain parts of your package for others to use. The system for handling modularization in Node.js is called CommonJS and this is the default way of handling JavaScript modules in Node.js.

Configuring TypeScript to export CommonJS modules

If you’re going to publish your code to npm and you want to make it as easy as possible for others to use your code in their own projects, you have to configure TypeScript to export your code in a format which can be handled by using the CommonJS require syntax. You can achieve this by setting the module compiler option in your tsconfig.json file to commonjs.

  "compilerOptions": {
    "module": "commonjs"

(Keep in mind that this only applies to packages which are meant to be used (mostly) on the backend. If you’re developing a npm package which is going to be used for building frontend applications, you might choose umd as your module output format.)

Writing modular TypeScript code

TypeScript inherited the ES6 way of handling modules. You might be familiar with the following syntax for importing JavaScript modules import path from 'path'; and export default () => 'Hello World'; for exporting a default function in a module.

Because of the concepts of named and default imports and exports in the ES6 specification (which are missing from the CommonJS system) CommonJS and ES6 imports and exports are not compatible. Although tools like Webpack, Babel and rollup.js came up with various solutions to make them work together – this is why usually most users do not have any problems making CommonJS modules play nicely with the ES6 style import syntax.

By configuring TypeScript to export modules using the CommonJS syntax TypeScript generates code which is compatible with other npm packages but if you want to publish your code to npm there are certain aspects you have to consider.

export function catsSay(): string {
  return 'Meow';

export default function catsAreAwesome(): string {
  return `Cats say: ${catsSay()}`;

In this example we are exporting two functions. The first one catsSay is a named export. The second one catsAreAwesome is marked as default export. If you’re going to publish this module to npm, what you most likely want to achieve is, that the users of your package can use it like in the following example.

const catsAreAwesome = require('cats-are-awesome');

catsAreAwesome(); // Expected to return `Cats say: Meow`.

But this is not the case. Because CommonJS does not support default exports, TypeScript has to transform the named and default exports in our code in a way that CommonJS can handle them. Basically what happens is what you can see in the following example.

exports = {
  catsSay: catsSay,
  default: catsAreAwesome,

(I have to note, that this is not the actual output which is generated by TypeScript but it is the same in terms of meaning and I find this way of writing it easier to comprehend.)

If you want to actually get the intended output of Cats say: Meow you must access the default property on the required module like you can see in the following example.

const catsAreAwesome = require('cats-are-awesome').default;

catsAreAwesome(); // Actually returns `Cats say: Meow`.

Although this would work, it is not a nice API and most certainly not what the users of your package would expect.

There are several ways how to work around this problem the following example is just one of the possible solutions. The key takeaway here is that using ES6 default exports won’t produce the most favorable results if you’re planning to publish your code to npm.

CommonJS style imports and exports in TypeScript

One of the easiest ways of dealing with this problem is to split your code across multiple files and use the TypeScript export = and import x = syntax which mimics the CommonJS behavior.

// cats-say.ts
export = function catsSay(): string {
  return 'Meow';
// index.ts
import catsSay = require('./cats-say');

export = function catsAreAwesome(): string {
  return `Cats say: ${catsSay()}`;

Users which are using your package in Node.js with require can now use your modules like you can see in the following example.

const catsAreAwesome = require('cats-are-awesome');
const catsSay = require('cats-are-awesome/cats-say');

catsAreAwesome(); // Returns `Cats say: Meow`.
catsSay(); // Returns `Meow`.

Publishing types to npm

If you’re using TypeScript you might have noticed that a lot of npm packages are missing support for types. If you’re publishing a new package built on top of TypeScript you’re able to publish the type declarations to npm automatically, so other TypeScript users are getting full type support out of the box when using your package.

To do so there are only two settings you have to make. First of all open your tsconfig.json file and add "declaration": true to your compilerOptions.

  "compilerOptions": {
    "declaration": true

Secondly you have to define the path to the types of your package which are generated by TypeScript in your package.json file so TypeScript can find them. Assuming the path to your compiled main JavaScript file is dist/index.js the path to the type declaration file is dist/index.d.ts.

  "main": "dist/index.js",
  "types": "dist/index.d.ts"

Wrapping it up

Although ES6 named and default exports are a huge step forward, Node.js does not support them yet (without additional tooling). If you’re publishing your code to npm you most likely want others to use it. In order to make it as easy as possible for others to use your code, it is important to follow certain best practices and provide a predictable API. By using the TypeScript export = syntax we can achieve this goal.

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